Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that causes Shortness of breath with exertion.

The main cause of COPD in developed countries is tobacco smoking.

Emphysema and chronic bronchitis are main contributor to COPD.



Chest tightness

A chronic cough that may produce sputum

Frequent respiratory infections

Lack of energy

Unintended weight loss

Blueness of the lips or fingernail beds

Swelling in ankles, leg.

Risk factors

Exposure to tobacco smoke and smoking

People with asthma who smoke

Occupational exposure to dusts and chemicals

Genetics. alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency is the cause of some uncommon cases of COPD.


Respiratory infections. An annual flu vaccination and regular vaccination against pneumococcal pneumonia can prevent some infections.

Heart failure and heart attack

Lung cancer

pulmonary hypertension



Pulmonary function tests including lung volumes, diffusing capacity and pulse oximetry.

Spirometry: Spirometry can detect COPD even before you have symptoms of the disease.

Chest X-ray

CT scan of your lungs

Arterial blood gas analysis

Laboratory tests. genetic disorder alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAt) deficiency ia pt with  family history of COPD and COPD under age 45.


Smoking cessation



Short-acting bronchodilators: example include albuterol (ProAir HFA, Ventolin HFA)

The long-acting bronchodilators example include tiotropium (Spiriva)

Inhaled steroids: example includes Fluticasone (Flovent HFA, Flonase, Pulmicort)

Combination inhalers: (Advair) and formoterol and budesonide (Symbicort)

Oral steroids for acute exacerbations.

Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors: example roflumilast (Daliresp)


Antibiotics: for acute bronchitis, pneumonia, and influenza.

Lung therapies

Oxygen therapy:

Pulmonary rehabilitation: Exercise training, nutrition advice and counseling.


Lung volume reduction surgery

Lung transplant